Overview
Your foot has an incredible design. All of the parts fit together in such a way as to be flexible and moveable while still being very strong. One of the important parts of the foot is your arch. Located in the middle of your foot, it is slightly raised off the ground and helps you absorb the impact of every step. Sometimes, however, it can ache and make walking or standing around very uncomfortable.
Pain In Arch

Causes
Stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and acute and chronic arthritis are most commonly the result of repetitive micro-trauma injuries. Micro-trauma injuries are caused when the structures of the body are stressed and re-stressed to the point that damage occurs in the tissues. Factors that commonly contribute to this injury can be running on uneven surfaces or surfaces that are too hard or too soft, shoes that have poor force-absorption qualities, or going too hard or too long during repeated exercise bouts.

Symptoms
The primary symptom is pain or aching in the arch area. This can be accompanied by inflammation and tenderness. If the pain is caused by the plantar fascia, it is likely to be considerably more severe in the mornings due to the muscles being unused. If you notice that the twinges of pain you have are most commonly associated with or immediately after exercise, you might want to visit a good athletic shoe store to make sure you are wearing the right kind of shoe. Another cause of arch pain is plantar fasciitis. The plantar fascia is a tough tissue structure that holds the bottom part of the arch in place. The fascia often becomes inflamed and sore, usually as a result of repetitive motion (for example, very common in those who stand on their feet for work). The pain is often noticeable first thing in the morning and worse with activity.

Diagnosis
Flat feet are easy to identify while standing or walking. When someone with flat feet stands, their inner foot or arch flattens and their foot may roll over to the inner side. This is known as overpronation. To see whether your foot overpronates, stand on tiptoes or push your big toe back as far as possible. If the arch of your foot doesn't appear, your foot is likely to overpronate when you walk or run. It can be difficult to tell whether a child has flat feet because their arches may not fully develop until they're 10 years of age.

Non Surgical Treatment
Tight arches, overpronation and flat feet as well as tight calves all lead to inflammation of the connective tissue that forms this arch of your foot. This condition, plantar fasciitis, can be very painful, from your first step in the morning. Fortunately, treatment is easier than most. No operations, no fancy pulsed waves, no night splints necessary. Good arch supports? full length flexible (not hard) orthotics are key. Stretches of the calf relieve arch tightness as the heel bone acts like a fulcrum pulling back the arch tissues if too tight. Regularly perform the gastroc and soleus stretches that you learned at the gym. If lazy, buy "Pro-Stretch" on line which helps you stretch your calves easily. Use it often. You can't stretch too often, only too little. Finally, the magic cure is to roll a golf ball under the arch for half-hour once a day. (I know; a half-hour is a long time to perform one exercise, but that's what it takes. Once you master this exercise, it is easy to do while you work at your desk or are watching a half hour TV program.) This may hurt the first week. Keep going because by week two, after you go over the pain hump, the pain will be gone.
Pain In Arch

Surgical Treatment
Foot surgery is difficult, especially when large amounts of deformity correction are needed. The ability to bring the foot into a new position may not be lasting, even if everything looks perfect in the operating room. The goal is to provide improved position and function of the foot and ankle. In some patients with very severe deformity, the goal is a foot that functions well in a brace. There are complications that relate to surgery in general. These include the risks associated with anesthesia, infection, damage to nerves and blood vessels, and bleeding or blood clots. Particular complications associated with cavus foot surgery include incomplete correction of deformity, return of deformity and incomplete fusion.


Stretching Exercises
Ankle evert or strengthening. Lie on your side with your feet hanging off the end of your bed or a weight bench. Bend the toes of the foot that is closer to the ceiling slightly toward your head. This is the starting position. Now raise your toes toward the ceiling while keeping the rest of your leg stationary. Return to the starting position. Reps. 10-15. Now point your toes slightly away from your head. This is the starting position. Raise your toes toward the ceiling. Return to the starting position. Reps. 10-15. Ankle invertor strengthening. Same as above, but do the exercises with the foot that is closer to the floor. Dorsiflexor strengthening. Sit on a desk, table, or counter so that your feet don?t touch the ground. Let your feet dangle comfortably. Bend your foot upward as far as you can comfortably go. Do not let your foot pull inward or outward. Return to the starting position. Reps. 10-15.

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Rosella Hannafin

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